The data were recorded, transcribed and coded using constructivist grounded theory for obtaining themes. 23 -26). see Shamim, 1993, ... From a more generalized perspective, using English as a medium of instruction has been seen from different points of view. This movement involved a demonstrated need on part of the learners to understand the language structures, grammar and vocabulary of the language of instruction, and it involved translation which is a nuanced and complex process. It selected two MS (Education) research supervisees with their supervisors as two case studies. IATEFL 2005 conference selections (pp. Further The imposition of English in education and its perceived prestige create additional problems for low socioeconomic status (SES) students who often have limited access to English. In Pakistan, mostly the students are dependent on their teachers. Most indices were found to distinguish CEFR levels A1, A2, and B1 in both language groups: the clearest separators were the length of production units, subordination, and phrasal density indices. In addition, the curriculum development programmes, mostly conducted under the patronage of foreign funding agencies, were also not sustainable. English as the language for development in Pakistan: Issues, challenges and possible solutions. This study adds the understanding that elite school students learned English in the environment provided by the schools instead of the family, since they usually spoke Pashtu at home. Two groups each with 15 students were made using purposive and convenience sampling method. promoting English and Urdu has strengthened the power of the rich and elitist class and has overall a negative impact on many indigenous cultures and languages. They are also vertically constrained in that they are unlikely to cater to the secondary levels in rural areas, at least until there is an increase in the supply of potential teachers with the required skills and educational levels. It presents, and discusses critically, examples of work from a range of contexts and uses these examples to draw out key issues for research in education in language diverse settings including teaching, learning, curriculum and fit these with appropriate policy and equity approaches. The study recommended that such trainings should be arranged for teachers to improve their skills of using English as Medium of Instruction. Apart from this, several factors make English learning essential as a part of the educational practice and receive particular importance. After the proper identification, it is necessary to stay in touch with the ways that can help out education system to resolve these issues. However, in this paper I argue that English language should also be discussed in the context of its indispensibility in social mobility and survival in Pakistan. Although, the relevance of embedding critical thinking in curriculum is inevitable, however, countries such as Pakistan where English is taught as second language, students face many challenges in developing critical thinking. We aim to translate and validate FCV19S into the Urdu language and to identify the socio-demographic associations with fear Nevertheless, in the backdrop of a persistent nationalistic ideology towards Bangla language right after Bangladesh's independence in 1971, the status and access of English and English language education went underground. Domains of children’s holistic development such as social, ethical, cultural, intellectual, emotional and physical well-being, and some other key academic skills, are not fully covered. Thus, the knowledge of English is a key indicator of social class and people consider it superior to other languages. While enrollment and retention rates are improving, progress has been slow to improve education indicators in Pakistan. So this language barrier has caused a great disturbance to students while shifting form one level to another level. In H. Coleman (Ed. Teacher-learner behaviour and classroom processes in large ESL classes in Pakistan. The symbolic power of language helps to understand the importance of English from the participantsâ perspectives and the role of education in perpetuating the existing class structure by limiting access to English. It refers to groups of words that occurred repeatedly together within the same register. The findings on the social support revealed that fatherâs support, teachersâ support, best friendsâ support, and other friendsâ support exerted impact on learnersâ L2 WTC. The recolonization of the African mind Language polices and practices: Some preliminary results from a research project in Tanzania and South Africa. Recommendations are made to adopt a more democratic language in education policy. ESL learners face plenty of problems in the beginning such as cohesion, connectors, repetitions, construction of phrases, sentences and use of lexical items accurately in conveying their message in academic writing. Students from English medium schools scored significantly lower on all scales than Medium of instruction in Hong Kong: One country, two systems, whose language? The findings reveal that teachers and students encounter several obstacles that hinder them in acquiring effective English learning. It is argued that while policy decisions are driven mainly by global change forces, strategic planning for implementation that is informed by local conditions and exigencies is necessary for successful policy implementation. Using new data, the authors document the phenomenal rise of the private sector in Pakistan and show that an increasing segment of children enrolled in private schools are from rural areas and from middle-class and poorer families. The article, by shedding light on those findings, finally informs the policymakers with some implications with which to develop their policy and to enhance and ensure the quality and efficacy of ELT-INSET programmes. The implications might also be applicable irrespective of INSET for other subjects and polities with the same context beyond Bangladesh. This study investigated Teacher Talk (TT) quantity, TT quality, teacher questions and feedback to determine whether the teacher-student interaction practices in a Pakistani language classroom align with ESL (English as a Second Language) principles or not. The learner groups differed most in the length measures and phrasal density when their CEFR level was controlled for. Nevertheless, it has been observed that despite extended exposure to English language instruction, students demonstrate significant variation in their communicative behaviour within the L2 classroom. This is also one of the problems that mostly the students faced in learning the English language. Hiring these teachers at low cost allows the savings to be passed on to parents through low fees. This study rests on two important considerations: the rapid increase of COVID-19 cases Most commentators argue that there have been deficient language policies, which ignored the realities of the context (Shamim, 2008). Language polices and practices: Some preliminary results . Wright, S. (2004). This increase leads educators to consider the professional preparation of English/literacy teachers to work with ELLs, especially in the area of writing instruction. results of independent sample t tests show that women (t = 4.086, p < 0.001), married London: Falmer Press. They didn’t take an interest in learning the English language. New York: Multilingual Language Policies and the Continua of Biliteracy: An Ecological Approach, Private schooling in the Northern Areas of Pakistan: A decade of rapid expansion, Whose Education for All? It would not be wrong to say that the Urdu language has revived in recent years due to post-Colonial and nationalistic debates. Listening, speaking, reading and writing are the four basic skills necessary for learning a language (Bel & Luis, 2010). The current policy i.e. that our graduates at the university level may think critically and independently. In spite of the efforts made by the government to achieve acquired level, the failure rates in English in Pakistan is very alarming. also indicate the symbolic capital and linguistic imperialism of English as participants consider its The strength of the class also causes a lot of problems in learning the English language. Due to this they cannot focus and try to speak the English language. (pp. The use of the term postcoloniality throughout the article emphasizes the economic domain of everyday life in present-day Tanzania, but an examination of the cultural dimensions of students' support for English reveals the interconnection between the materialist and nonmaterialist aspects of language policy. Parents are major beneficiary or sufferer of the outcome of the education of their children. ... Blundell (1999) suggests teachers training is counted as an essential element for success and efficiency in education. To enhance the leadership skills of current and future leaders in the association, including chapter leaders working in different parts of Pakistan. The paper reports on a qualitative case study in critical research paradigm, aimed to investigate the notion of student voices and how they are submerged by the power and hegemony in research consultations. For surviving in foreign countries, they have to learn and speak the English language fluently. The study was delimited to male primary school teachers of the three districts namely Mardan, Peshawar and Swabi. The data was collected and analysed through narrative analysis technique, the qualitative research design and method. The study found that people in Pakistan consider English necessary for survival in academic, professional, and social life. Ties that constrict: English as a Trojan horse. Therefore, the current study posits that the selection of ESL teachers must also be determined with the levels of their proficiency in English. There is also a chapter on the Urdu-English controversy in education as well as the minor language movements of Pakistan. It is also the medium of instruction for higher education at tertiary level institutions in Pakistan, so good literacy skills are an essential ingredient for academic success (Ahmed-Khurram, 2007; ... English language is growing rapidly in this region as Parveen (2013) in her article argues that, based on a study on attitudes towards the varieties of spoken English in Pakistan by Bolton. Educational Development. In Pakistan, the people’s mother tongue is not the English language. This paper reviews several of the resulting ideological challenges to EAP. Activity types and pattern of interaction in language classrooms in Pakistan. The education is ultimate investment by the people towards the culture to improve it ideally. 2016), excessive use of grammar translation method (Rahman, 2001), less emphasis on listening and speaking. The Symbolic Capital and Expanding Roles of English: A Study of L2 attitudes in a Pakistani EFL Context, Passport to Privilege: Access to English in Different School Systems in Pakistan, Learning Experiences and Motivation of Undergraduate Students in Pakistani EFL Classrooms: A Qualitative Study, TEACHERSâ SELF-EFFICACY: EFFECTIVE INDICATOR TOWARDS STUDENTSâ SUCCESS IN MEDIUM OF EDUCATION PERSPECTIVE, ELT, Teacher Education, and EMI context in Pakistan ELT, Teacher Education, and EMI context in Pakistan, Teacher-Student Interaction and Management Practices in Pakistani English Language Classrooms, Effect of English Language Competency on the Job Satisfaction and Motivation of Teacher Educators: A Narrative Analysis, Challenges of The Education System of Pakistan: Especially Featuring Adult Literacy and Enrolment Rate of Pakistan, The role of English in developing countries: English is a passport to privilege and needed for survival in Pakistan, Factors Affecting Students' Motivation Level to Learn English as a Second Language in the Pakistani University Context, Desire for English in Youth: An Exploratory Study of Language Learners in Pakistan, Physical Punishment at School in Three Educational Systems in Pakistan, Unburdening the Pedagogy of the Oppressed: A Case Study of ELT Classrooms at University Level in South Punjab, Teacher-Student Interaction Management: A Study on the Practices and Principles in a Pakistani ESL Classroom, Top-down English policy and bottom-up teacher take: An interview-based insight from the Balochistan province of Pakistan, The Effects of Strategy-based Reading Instruction on the Reading Comprehension and Metacognitive Reading Strategy Awareness of Pakistani Undergraduate Students, IDENTIFICATION OF THE LEADING CAUSE OF FAILURE OF STUDENTS IN ENGLISH SUBJECT AT SECONDARY SCHOOL LEVEL IN LAHORE BOARD, Myths and Realities about Language of Instruction in Pakistan: Parental Perspective, Lexical Bundles: A Corpus -driven investigation of Academic Writing Teaching to ESL Undergraduates, English Language in Education and Globalization: A Comparative Analysis of the Role of English in Pakistan and China, Factors affecting the quality and efficacy of an ELT-INSET: A case study of Bangladesh, The English/Urdu-Medium Divide in Pakistan: Consequences for Learner Identity and Future Life Chances, Adaptation Challenges Faced by Pakistani University Entrants, Evaluating an English Language Textbook: A Study on 'English-2' in the light of Communicative Language Teaching Principles, Factors Contributing Low English Language Literacy in Rural Primary Schools of Karachi, Pakistan, ROLE OF ESL INSTRUCTORS AND LEARNERS' ATTITUDE TO USE PEDAGOGICAL TECHNIQUES IN DEVELOPING READING SKILLS AT THE SECONDARY LEVEL: A CASE STUDY OF LAHORE, PAKISTAN, Development of Attitude through Critical Thinking, Bilingual Education and Mobility in Pothwari and Pahari Families, The Psychometric Validation of FCV19S in Urdu and Socio-Demographic Association with Fear in the People of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) Province in Pakistan, The Effects of British Council Training Program English as Medium of Instruction on Primary School Teachers in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, Effectiveness of Literacy & Numeracy Drive (LND): A Students' Perspective, Usefulness of Mobile Assisted Language Learning Application, Usefulness of Mobile Assisted Language Learning in Primary Education, Education Research Journal Investigating the metacognitive reading awareness of young learners in a Pakistani school, Impact of Students' Motivation for Learning English on their Achievement at Secondary Level, Voice in Research Consultations: Affects of Power and Hegemony on Supervisees' Discourses, Gap between Acquired and Required English Learning Objectives for the Primary School Students: Empirical Evidence from Sargodha (Pakistan), A Comparative Study of Written Communication Skills of 8th Grade Students of Public, Private and Missionary Schools, ELF-SALU 42-Article Text-140-1-10-20200104, The competing status of Urdu and English after declaration of Urdu as official language in Pakistan, English medium education, patriarchy, and emerging social structures: Narratives of Indian women, How Social Support and Foreign Language Anxiety Impact Willingness to Communicate in English in an EFL Classroom, Investigating syntactic complexity in EFL learners' writing across Common European Framework of Reference levels A1, A2 and B1 Framework of Reference levels A1, A2 and B1, The Impact of Learning Organization Practices on Organizational Effectiveness, INTEGRATED COLLABORATIVE LEARNING APPROACH (ICLA) CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF PEDAGOGICAL APPROACH FOR THE INTEGRATION OF LANGUAGE SKILLS, English as the language of development in Pakistan: Issues, challenges and possible solutions, Denizens of Alien World: A Study of Education, Inequality and Polarization in Pakistan, Whose Education for All? The one languageâone nation ideology of language policy and national identity is no longer the only available one worldwide (if it ever was). Due to these practices, Urdu is used as a dominant language in the language classrooms in Pakistan, ... Common classroom practices, in Pakistan, involve teachers' concentration on 'doing grammar' or 'doing a lesson'. Resulting there is increasing unemployment. In recent times, the complete understanding of the importance and roles of English in Pakistani society may remain incomplete without realising its global spread as the major lingua franca in the contemporary world (Rahman, 2007; ... Pakistan does not have a uniform educational system. By drawing upon Woolard & Schieffelinâs Language Ideology Model (1994), this paper analyses how parents perceive the importance of language of instruction for the education of their children. The K-12 student population in many English-dominant countries is becoming increasingly diverse. (pp. This paper explores language ideology, policies and the role of English in Pakistan and China, two countries in which English plays different roles in education. knowledge necessary for socio-economic uplift in the contemporary world including Pakistan. The findings of this study have implications for EFL classroom participation in the target language and offer an insight for the policy and planning for the use of English language in an EFL context. The theoretical insights have been taken from Freireâs Banking They do a lot of effort in learning the English language as a second language. Korth, B., & Schulter, B. (n.d.). their linguistic attitudes. Lack of confidence, problem in speaking English and poor grammar knowledge were major factors that demotivated students in learning English. London: Lawrence Understanding language and power in the Solomon Islands: Methodological lessons for educational intervention. Brock-Utne, B. employment in Pakistan (Unpublished summary report). In Pakistan, English is one of the official languages and a prerequisite for professional jobs (Rahman, 2005). The study recommended that every school should possess an environment where facilities of teaching language skill are provided keeping in view the above factors. Present research recommends that Government structure teachersâ self-efficacious believes through providing training, conducting workshops before joining teaching professions and ensuring certificates; once teachersâ confidence structure, less possible to alter to obtained desired achievements during teaching learning process. Additionally, anxiety also negatively and significantly predicted L2 WTC with a medium effect size (f2 = .26). The results of t test and ANOVA showed statistically significant variation across all the tested variables on the scale of language use patterns in the Pothwari and Pahari families. We found that issues such as limited teaching time for the English subject, lack of qualified teachers, inappropriate English textbooks, teachersâ customary teaching methodology, paucity of resources, and gap between policymakers and practitioners impacted the policy. Language policies and practices play vital role in shaping the perceptions of individual for the choice of any language. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Feedback was romantic in nature. The differential access to English leads to social stratification because of the crucial role English plays in social mobility. This paper explores English Language Teaching in Pakistan, particularly in the contexts of primary and secondary education of privately-owned and public schools in the province of Punjab, with relation to teacher education of ELTs and content teachers employed by these institutions. study reveal that our ELT classrooms are lacking the creativity and critical thinking at large. Activity types and pattern of interaction in language classrooms in Psychometric properties. However, this study also found that some demands of the university culture pose bigger challenges to the Pakistani university entrants. Karachi, Pakistan: Oxford University Press. Thinking creatively and critically in the English language beckons our representation in different The findings Or hire teachers who are not specialized in the English language. Unqualified Teachers Teaching English Language: 7. The data were gathered using a self-report instrument, Metacomprehension Strategy Index, MSI (Schmitt, 1990). Dar-es-Salam: E & D Limited. Education is considered as the cheapest defense of a nation. that the Problem Posing Model of teaching and learning may be adopted in our ELT Classrooms so The study concludes that the people understand the role of Urdu in the context of nationwide connection while English is source of connecting with the world. This perception is putting society, language teaching and presumed westernization that comes with English as a Medium of Instruction (EMI) at odds with each other. The researchers worked on literature to find out one of the best teaching approaches that can help learners to partake actively and achieve learning goals of language skills according to the needs of current scenario with the help of language abilities and communicative activities under the umbrella of enabling skills through pedagogical and target tasks. They teach the students the wrong way or the wrong thing because they didn’t have the knowledge about the teaching of the English language. interviews of Pakistani undergraduate EFL learners were conducted to get an in-depth data about To achieve this skill, researchers believe that development of metacognitive strategies is one of the requirements, especially for second language readers, as it supports understanding and improves comprehension. It is, rather, a meta-analysis of the trends that can be identiﬁed based on current research. English is considered a pre-requisite for economic and social mobility. The study confirmed the findings of various studies (e.g., Abbas, 1993;Coleman & Capstick, 2012;Manan, David, & Dumanig, 2014;Rahman, 2007; ... English language teaching (ELT) has always been a complex and much debated field in Pakistani education system. And this problem is worsening day by day in the present times, due to wrong educational policies of higher authorities. The findings of the study hence, add to improvement in English language instruction and understanding of desires among the students. Access to English in Pakistan is on a continuum for students in different schools. The problems faced by the students in understanding texts written in English are particularly highlighted, and implications drawn for the successful implementation of extensive reading programs in rural and urban schools. 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